ORCHESTRAL SUITE NO. It is clear from these letters that Mozart was in serious financial difficulty (a situation that was only just beginning to change at the time of his death). 38 in D Major, K. 504 (Prague) There are more sketches for the Prague Symphony than any other by Mozart—starts and stops and doodling for all the movements, even an opening for the finale, which eventually was discarded. 39. Probably he wrote all three of the symphonies with the aim of introducing them at his own concerts. We are privileged to continue publishing his program notes. Symphony No. The slow movement, in A‑flat, opens with deceptive simplicity; it is, in fact, a richly detailed movement, with progressive elaborations of the material throughout. Mozart’s attempt to improve his family’s situation during this difficult summer is clearly apparent in the “minor” works he was composing along with the three symphonies. The Symphony No. Portrait of Leopold Mozart from his 1756 Versuch einer … Finally the Elector in Munich commissioned an opera from the young man, largely at the express wish of the musicians in his court (what enlightened leadership! 1 in E-flat major, K.16 Symphony No. The first movement opens with a stately slow introduction with dotted rhythms providing a nervous background for scale figures (which recur in the body of the movement), culminating in a grindingly dissonant appoggiatura. Mozart adhered to the prevalent Parisian style, featuring timbals, trumpets and – a first for Mozart – clarinets, but did not include a minuet. 39 in E-flat Major, K. 543, The melodic line of the introduction only comes to a close in the opening phrase of the smiling allegro theme in the violins (with echoes in horns and bassoons), a calm pastoral scene following the tension of the preceding passage. An invigorating first movement predominates, followed by a … 39! Mozart’s choice of clarinets instead of oboes produces a gentler woodwind sonority especially appropriate to the autumnal lyricism of Symphony No. Gone were the heady days of 1784, when he music was in constant demand in Vienna (during one hectic eleven-day period, he gave ten concerts!) His books are available at the Symphony Store in Davies Symphony Hall. Bianca Ancheta. But the serenade, on the contrary, I wrote from inner compulsion. 25 in G minor, K. 183 I. Allegro con brio II. The original plan was to have a series of staged tableaux accompanied by music, each scene to be set by a different composer, chosen by lot. Between October 1777 and the following March, Mozart, en route to Paris with his mother, made an extended and happy visit to Mannheim, home of the finest orchestra in Europe‑‑“an orchestra of generals,” Mozart called it. The work was performed with great success by the Société Nationale de la Musique on December 22 and 23 that year under the direction of the Swiss conductor Gustave Doret. PROGRAM NOTES by Kalindi Bellach ©2019. 10, D. 936a, reveal three movements; the Andante on tonight’s program is the second. Then came Don Giovanni, composed for the citizens of Prague who had taken Figaro completely to their hearts. In 1865 the poet Stéphane Mallarmé produced a “Monologue d’un faune,” with which he hoped to obtain a performance at the Comédie Française. The score calls for flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets in pairs, timpani, and strings. Tickets for this event will be available for purchase at Woolsey Hall beginning at 6:30pm. It was not to be; the aristocracy showed no special interest in an ex‑prodigy now grown up, and—most tragic of all—during their stay Mozart’s mother fell seriously ill and died in early July. Symphony No. 102. In Paris, Mozart's mother is very sick, and she will die shortly after the premiere of this new symphony, his 31st, still known as the "Paris". He adds, "[Mozart's father] Leopold remarked that, to judge by the Parisian symphonies he had seen, the French must like noisy symphonies."[8]. The leading composers of the day had written grand tragic operas for the great theater of Elector Carl Theodor, and when Mozart met the Elector, he confessed that he would like to write an opera for his forces. Duration is about 10 minutes. Finally, the following year, he brought out his first book, which contained the text of the eclogue entitled “L’Après-midi d’un faune.” Mallarmé continued to hope for a theatrical performance; as late as 1891 he promised in print to produce a new version for the theater. Program Notes: By Lawrence Budmen Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Symphony No.35 in D Major, K.385 (“Haffner”) Siegmund Haffner (a member of a prominent Salzburg mercantile family) commissioned Mozart to write a serenade for his sister’s wedding in 1776. Duration is about 29 minutes. Among these delicious moments are the woodwind additions to the main theme in the strings at the recapitulation. Symphony No. Enhanced Program Notes: MOZART + HAYDN Portrait of Joseph Haydn by Thomas Hardy, 1791. 41 in C Major, K. 551, “Jupiter” (1788) 29 minutes Flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. Throughout his life, he was also interested in music; he had even written an essay on Wagner for the “Revue wagnerienne” in 1885. Symphony No. In fact, Idomeneo was the finest opera seria composed in many years‑‑perhaps ever. On June 18 it was played in public in the same city by the Concert Spirituel. 29 in A Major, his third (and last) in that key, was finished in 1774. The hearty minuet provides a strong contrast to the delicacies of the Andante; its Trio features a clarinet solo with little echoes from the flute. [5] The work was published in Paris by Sieber and announced for sale 20 February 1779. PROGRAM NOTES by Kalindi Bellach ©2017. The scurrying turn appears alone or in combinations, turning to unexpected keys after a sudden silence; the “hiccup” often comes as a separate response from the woodwinds to the rushing figure in the strings. His greatest success of this period of time was the Paris Symphony. This, the most lyrical of the final three symphonies, gives no hint of the composer’s distraught condition (thus eloquently disproving the old romantic fallacy that a composer’s music was little more than a reflection of his state of mind). 25 in G Minor, K. 183 Mozart composed this symphony in 1773; it was first performed on October 5 of that year in Salzburg. In order to accomplish this aim, Mozart proposed to his librettist, a Salzburg cleric named Abbé Giambattista Varesco, that the story be cast more in the French manner, with ensembles and choruses to vary the texture. Michael Steinberg, the San Francisco Symphony’s program annotator from 1979 to 1999 and a contributing writer to our program book until his death in 2009, was one of the nation’s pre-eminent writers on music. Symphony No. Symphony - Symphony - Mozart: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart raised the symphony to heights that in many respects remain unsurpassed. 2 BARBER Adagio for Strings HAYDN Symphony No. 102. The Symphony No. One of the most “French” elements of Idomeneo in its original Munich production (though one that has not been included in many performances since) is the extended ballet at the very end of the opera, after all the singing has ended. The Symphony No. His last three symphonies, K. 543, 550, and 551, were all composed during the summer of 1788, probably for a series of subscription concerts that seem not to have taken place. Andante III. Royal College of Music, London. Just as we seem about to settle onto the dominant, ready to begin the Allegro, the activity decelerates and we are confronted with a stark, hushed chromatic figure recalling some of the “uncanny” moments in Don Giovanni. Tchaikovsky, to his chagrin, drew the subject, “Montenegrin villagers receiving news of Russia’s declaration of war on Turkey.”. CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918)Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun. He completed the serenade on November 4, the overture two weeks later. The young composer, just twenty‑one and ready to spread his wings, was captivated by the music‑making in Mannheim (and equally captivated by a soprano named Aloysia Weber, but that’s another story). 41 by Wolfgang Amade-us Mozart, a sublime masterpiece from 1788 that exemplifies why its composer occupies a spot on the very top rung of symphonic creation. In 1875, Mallarmé tried to get his work published as “Improvisation du faune” in a literary anthology, again without success. It was an overture dealing with Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, and would call for actual cannons in performance. The development section is one of the shortest in any Mozart symphony, never moving far afield harmonically. The careful bridging of sections, so that nothing ever quite comes to a full close without suggesting continuation, effectively blurs what is, after all, a fairly straightforward ABA form. It has vigorous, stirring tuttis, with a lively violin line and an active line for the basses, lending the music extra animation. In January 1779 Mozart reluctantly returned to Salzburg after a disastrous two-year trip to Germany and Paris. One of the greatest miracles in the history of music is Mozart’s achievement in the summer of 1788, composing his last three symphonies all in the space of six weeks. Again on June 17 he needed money to pay his landlord and asked Puchberg for a few hundred gulden “until tomorrow.” Yet again on the 27th he wrote to thank Puchberg for the money so freely lent him, but also to report that he needed still more and did not know where to turn for it. Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (1756-1791) Mozart’s Symphony No. ... WOLFGANG AMADÈ MOZART (1756-1791) Symphony No. Despite a successful premiere for his Paris Symphony (K297) at the Concert Spirituel on June 18 and a few other small commissions (concertos for flute, some ballet music), This wonderful ballet music, symbolizing the harmonious resolution of the dramatic situation, shows us a Mozart reveling in the quality of the finest orchestra he had yet had at his disposal. The symphony is laid out in fast-slow-fast form, omitting the Minuet normally found in classical-era symphonies: The first movement opens with a rising and accelerating D major scale in an effect known at the time as the Mannheim Rocket. His first letter to Puchberg referred to “concerts in the Casino,” from which he hoped to obtain subscription money in order to repay his debts. 31 "Paris" performed by students of the Royal College of Music", List of symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, List of spurious/doubtful Mozart symphonies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symphony_No._31_(Mozart)&oldid=994153432, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 09:48. Generally speaking the singer—especially the superstar singer‑‑was monarch of the operatic world; composers wrote arias precisely tailored to the characteristics of an individual voice. Clarinets were relatively new in the symphony orchestra (although long since a standard component of Mozart’s opera orchestra), and it was by no means a foregone conclusion that they would be included. Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart, who began calling himself Wolfgang Amadeo about 1770 and Wolfgang Amadè about 1777, was born in Salzburg, Austria, on January 27, 1756, and died in Vienna on December 5, 1791. Tickets: $15 – $74; KidTix Free with Adult; College Students $10. Not only did he fail in obtaining a court appointment, but private commissions were also few and far between. 4 Bizet – Symphony in C Major Beethoven – Piano Concerto No. He was supposed to write a piece of music for the twenty-fifth anniversary of Tsar Alexander II’s accession to the throne, since the government hoped to generate a little enthusiasm for the ruler, who had recently been the subject of some assassination attempts. He had hoped to obtain financial stability through the performances of his operas, but The Marriage of Figaro achieved only nine performances during its season in the repertory (1786), partly, at least, because other, more influentially placed, composers had their own fish to fry and were not interested in supporting Mozart. Serge Koussevitzky conducted the first Boston Symphony Orchestra performances of the overture on December 1 and 2, 1944. How astonishing, then, to realize that between the last two letters cited he composed the Symphony No. This is a piece from the heart and so, I venture to say, it does not lack artistic worth. 2 BARBER Adagio for Strings HAYDN Symphony No. The score calls for two oboes, two bassoons, four horns, and strings. and he was writing a sheaf of piano concertos and other works. November 6, 2019. This music prolongs the emotion of my poem, and sets its scene more vividly than color.” The first performance of the Prelude made Debussy famous overnight; the striking character of this music, which everyone experienced as something quite new, established his personality even in the eyes of those critics who expressed a wish for “an art more neat, more robust, more masculine.”. This artist, who from the tenderest age made a name for himself among harpsichord players, may today be ranked among the most able composers. Tickets: Adults: $40 Students (through college): $5 This was Mozart’s first symphony … How he made use of that wonderful orchestra! If Mozart had continued to work in that vein, the history of opera might have been very different. Achille-Claude Debussy was born at St. Germain-en-Laye, Department of Seine-et-Oise, France, on August 22, 1862, and died in Paris on March 25, 1918. Mozart in the Afternoon Series. But it is hardly likely that Mozart would have composed three whole symphonies at a time when he was in desperate financial straits if he didn’t have some hope of using them in a practical way to support his family. The composer noted on the score that he preferred to have as large an ensemble of orchestral strings as possible for performances of the work. [1], The work was composed in 1778 during Mozart's unsuccessful job-hunting sojourn in Paris. It has vigorous, stirring tuttis, with a lively violin line and an active line for the basses, lending the music extra animation. The finale is often called the most Haydnesque movement Mozart ever wrote, largely because it is nearly monothematic. On February 10, 1794 Solomon presented the premiere as part of a concert at Hanover Square that included a piano concerto by Dusseck and a new violin concerto by Viotti (with the composer doing the solo honors). 23 in A major, K. 488 BORN: January 27, 1756, in Salzburg DIED: December 5, 1791, in Vienna WORK COMPOSED: early in 1786 WORLD PREMIERE: Unknown, but almost certainly March 1786, in Vienna, with the composer playing the solo part and conducting from the keyboard. Even more impressive is the striking variety between the three works, each of which has a character and mood all its own. The Three Bs / Symphonic Surprises / Strauss and His Idol. Mozart and BeethovenPROGRAM NOTES Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Ballet Music from Idomeneo, K. 367: Chaconne and Pas Seul Mozart composed Idomeneo for the Elector of Bavaria’s court in Munich French opera was popular, and a ballet sequence was mandatory Mozart used a theme by Gluck for his first movement Rhythmic consistency and gorgeous melodies make this music perfect … Mozart's 1778 six month trip to Paris was a difficult time for him personally and professionally, according to SPSO program notes. 39 in E-flat major, K.543, was completed on June 26, 1788. Most listeners, though, have been content to wallow in this exquisitely wrought play of color, harmony, and misty melody without bothering to consider how much of the future was already implicit in this brief score. During the year he had witnessed, both in Mannheim and Paris, the highest quality of operatic production, and he was eager to contribute to it. [10][11], Sadie notes, reflecting on Leopold's remark given above, that indeed "Mozart's Paris Symphony is quite noisy. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, posthumous painting by Barbara Kraft, 1819. The particular strengths of the Mannheim forces may well have turned his attention in the direction it was to take when he next composed an opera, for he wrote to his father in February, “I am eager to write [an opera]…but Italian, not German, and seria, not buffa.” Nothing came of his desire at the time, since Leopold was eager for the pair to get on to Paris, where (he was sure) fame and fortune awaited his son. Program Notes, 2019-20 Season. Its first performance took place in St. Petersburg on October 30, 1881. ), specifying that it be a serious opera in Italian. "His mother, who had accompanied him on the trip, died 3 July. But, as far as we know, the concerts never took place. But Mozart liked ensembles, in which various characters can express their feelings together. His own poetry, he said, was inspired by “music proper, which we must raid and paraphrase, if our own music [poetry], is struck dumb, is insufficient.”, Debussy had already set a Mallarmé text as early as 1884. The score calls for flute, two each of clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets, plus timpani and strings. At the same time, purely for his own satisfaction, he wrote a serenade for string orchestra, a late-nineteenth-century equivalent of the Classical divertimento. PROGRAM NOTES by Paul Schiavo WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Piano Concerto No. Deutsch lists several further performances at the Concert Spirituel during 1779, on 18 and 23 March, 23 May, and 3 June; and on 14 May 1780. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in Kamsko-Votkinsk, Vyatka province, Russia, on May 7, 1840, and died in St. Petersburg on November 6, 1893. In contrast to the symphony on tonight’s program, which shows the composer in an exalted mode, the Concerto for Flute and Harp is a youthful and charming work, easy on the ears and sprinkled with delicate ornament. Symphony No. Allegro Intermission Philadelphia Orchestra concerts are broadcast on WRTI 90.1 FM on Sunday afternoons at 1 PM, and are repeated on Monday evenings at 7 PM on WRTI HD 2. 31 in D major, K. 297/300a, better known as the Paris Symphony, is one of the most famous symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The actual thematic matter is relatively conventional, more a matter of figures than melodies, but there is not development as such, and most of the working-out of ideas comes at their presentation." 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